Lashings are a common form of punishment[214] and are often imposed for offences against religion and public morality such as drinking alcohol and neglect of prayer and fasting obligations. As a result, there has been a phenomenal growth in the production of all basic foods. KAUST aspires to be a destination for scientific and technological education and research. The first concerts in Riyadh for 25 years took place the following year. It started as a Sheikdom of Dedan, which developed into the Kingdom of Lihyan tribe. Saudi Arabia to host F1 for first time despite human rights record. [402], The Kingdom likewise has some of the most modern and largest dairy farms in the Middle East. [565] As of 2018, two women hold cabinet positions in the Saudi government: Dr Tamadur bint Youssef Al Ramah, who was appointed deputy labor minister that year; and Norah bint Abdallah Al Faiz, who became deputy minister of education in charge of women's affairs in 2009. [103] In 1902, Abdul Rahman's son, Abdul Aziz—later to be known as Ibn Saud—recaptured control of Riyadh bringing the Al Saud back to Nejd, creating the third "Saudi state". [531], Developments in the arts in 2018 included Saudi Arabia's debut appearances at the Cannes Film Festival and the Venice Biennale. Those arrested are often not informed of the crime of which they are accused or given access to a lawyer and are subject to abusive treatment and torture if they do not confess. [428][429], The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. [79] The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca in about 571 CE. Al-Nakhla Tower, 13 th floor, Ath Thumamah Road Al Sahafa District. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not allowed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. [407], Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination, water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades. [242], In the Arab and Muslim worlds, Saudi Arabia is considered to be pro-Western and pro-American,[244] and it is certainly a long-term ally of the United States. Its modern high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the US, France and Britain. Secondo rimpasto di governo e nomina del nuovo principe ereditario [ modifica | modifica wikitesto ] Nell'aprile 2015 re Salmān ha nominato un nipote come nuovo erede presuntivo e ha posto un suo giovane figlio nella seconda posizione della linea di successione. Despite improvements service quality remains poor. Saudi Arabia may cut or keep Asia crude prices steady in December: Survey Three of six Asian buyers expect the December OSP for Saudi flagship grade Arab Light to fall by 10-20 cents a barrel from the previous month, while two others expected prices to hold steady, the survey showed [297] Apart from China, the UN nuclear watchdog, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was also assisting Saudi’s nuclear ambition. [585] In 2 January 2020, Saudi Arabia announced three days Events-Only visa for expats living in United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Kuwait. [14] The world's second-largest religion,[15] Islam, emerged in modern-day Saudi Arabia. [404], The olive tree is indigenous to Saudi Arabia. English Translation of “Arabia Saudita” | The official Collins Italian-English Dictionary online. [211][212] [385] Increases in oil prices in the early 2000s helped boost per capita GDP to $17,000 in 2007 dollars (about $7,400 adjusted for inflation),[386] but have declined since oil price drop in mid-2014. Traditionally, men usually wear a white ankle length garment woven from wool or cotton (known as a thawb), with a keffiyeh (a large checkered square of cotton held in place by an agal) or a ghutra (a plain white square made of finer cotton, also held in place by an agal) worn on the head. Institutions of higher education include the country's first university, King Saud University founded in 1957, the Islamic University at Medina founded in 1961, and the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah founded in 1967. In 2007, the Allegiance Council was created to regulate the succession. ", "Saudi Arabia Imposes Death Sentence for Bible Smuggling", Saudi Arabia declares all atheists are terrorists in new law to crack down on political dissidents, "Saudi Arabia: 2 Years Behind Bars on Apostasy Accusation", 'The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage', 'Islamic heritage lost as Makkah modernises', 'Shame of the House of Saud: Shadows over Mecca', Destruction of Islamic Architectural Heritage in Saudi Arabia: A Wake-up Call, "Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih)", "Al-Ahsa Oasis, an Evolving Cultural Landscape", "Rock Art in the Hail Region of Saudi Arabia", KSA Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List (4), Saudi Arabia to Spend $1Bn On Cultural Heritage, Destruction du patrimoine : une résolution historique du Conseil de Sécurité, "I will return Saudi Arabia to moderate Islam, says crown prince", "Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's dynamic year of reform", "Catholic cardinal meets Saudi King in historic visit to Riyadh", "Saudi Arabia commits US$25 million to UNESCO for the protection of heritage", "Traditional dress of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabia allows concerts—even country music", "Mohammed Abdu to perform live in Riyadh", "Rise of Saudi Prince Shatters Decades of Royal Tradition", "Saudi Arabia to reopen public cinemas for the first time in 35 years", "Saudi Arabia to Debut at Cannes With Its First National Pavilion", "Saudi Arabia and Lebanon are Set to Make Their Venice Biennale Debut", "David Guetta on his historic Saudi Arabia performance", "Saudi Arabian Slam Dunk, Fall 1997, Winter 1998, Volume 14, Number 4, Saudi Arabia", "Saudi women show greater interest in sports and games", "Men Basketball Asia Championship 1999 Fukuoka (JPN)- 28.08–05.09 Winner China", "Saudi women push for right to play sports – Sport", "Saudi Arabia opens first sports centre for women", "Saudi government sanctions sports in some girls' schools", "Saudi Arabia: No women on Asian Games Team", "Saudi Arabia to let women into sports stadiums", "Sportswashing: how Saudi Arabia lobbies the US's largest sports bodies", "Reforms Under Veil: Saudi's First Women Wrestling Battled in Bodysuits", "Saudi Arabia Embraces Western Sports to Rehabilitate Global Image", "Two Years of WWE in Saudi Arabia and Growing Resistance of Superstars", "F1 risks human rights wrath over first Saudi Arabian race", "Saudi women no longer need male guardian consents to receive services", "Saudi Arabia to let women work and study without man's permission", "Saudi Writer and Journalist Wajeha Al-Huwaider Fights for Women's Rights", Saudi women no longer confined to their conventional roles, Age at First Marriage, Female – All Countries, "Saudi Youth: Unveiling the Force for Change", 'Top Saudi cleric: OK for young girls to wed', "Saudi Human Rights Commission Tackles Child Marriages", "Women constitute 13% of Saudi workforce: stats agency", "Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women", "Ideological and ownership trends in the saudi media", "Saudi women rise up after years of absence", "Saudi stock exchange appoints first female chair", "Saudi Arabia just appointed a female deputy minister", "Women in Saudi Arabia to vote and run in elections", "Camera Snapshots: Media in the Service of King Abdullah", "Saudi Arabia's women vote in election for first time", "Saudi Arabia cabinet approves domestic abuse ban", "Saudi Arabia passes law criminalizing domestic abuse", "Saudi Arabia cabinet passes ban on domestic violence", "Saudi Stock Exchange appoints first female chief in history of the kingdom", "Prince Mohammed bin Salman announces Saudi plans for largest entertainment city", "World-class entertainment park coming up in Al-Qiddiya", "Saudi King issues decree allowing women to drive", "Saudi women to start own business without male permission", "Divorced Saudi women win right to get custody of children", "Saudi Arabia brings back movie theaters — and 'staggering' demand is expected", "Mohammed bin Salman's reforms in Saudi Arabia could benefit us all", "Saudi Arabia to allow adult women to travel, register divorce", "Saudi Arabian women finally allowed to hold passports and travel independently", "Saudi Arabia Invites Tourists: What You Need to Know", "Saudi Arabia Grants Free 'Events Only' Visas for UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait Expats", "Saudi Prince's Year of Prestige Is Unraveling in Front of Him", "Saudi Arabia Looks at 'Painful' Measures, Deep Spending Cuts", "Newcastle United takeover deal worth £300m close", "19 Saudi universities among top 100 in the Arab world", "ARWU World University Rankings 2018 | Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018 | Top 500 universities | Shanghai Ranking – 2018", "World University Rankings – 2018 | Saudi Arabia Universities in Top 500 universities | Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2018 | Shanghai Ranking – 2018", "Saudi Arabia's Education Reforms Emphasize Training for Jobs", "Saudi school lessons in UK concern government", "This medieval Saudi education system must be reformed", "Secondary School Studies Plan 1438 Hijri", SR9 billion Tatweer project set to transform education, "Saudi Arabia most improved economy for business", "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) – Saudi Arabia | Data", Key Development Forecasts for Saudi Arabia, Council of Economic and Development Affairs, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (central bank), Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries,, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1932, Member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Pages with login required references or sources, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, 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Further cultural developments include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadiums to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce. News. [219], Since 1960, as a founding member of OPEC, its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market and try to moderate sharp price movements so as to not jeopardise the Western economies. [462] In November 2013, Saudi Arabia expelled thousands of illegal Ethiopian residents from the Kingdom. The laws also grant the women the eligibility for the guardianship of minor children. Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the wider Arab world, and has influenced and been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food. [260] The tentative rapprochement between the US and Iran that began in secret in 2011[261] was said to be feared by the Saudis,[262] and, during the run up to the widely welcomed deal on Iran's nuclear programme that capped the first stage of US–Iranian détente, Robert Jordan, who was US ambassador to Riyadh from 2001 to 2003, said "[t]he Saudis' worst nightmare would be the [Obama] administration striking a grand bargain with Iran. In 1972, Saudi Arabia gained a 20 percent control in Aramco, thereby decreasing US control over Saudi oil. The G20 summit is an annual gathering of world leaders and central bank executives from 19 countries and the European Union. You can’t just fly in here on a tourist visa — you need to be invited by a Saudi citizen (or school). [356], Wildlife includes the Arabian leopard,[357][358] wolf, striped hyena, mongoose, baboon, hare, sand cat, and jerboa. محافظة; muhafazah). [3][597], Memorization by rote of large parts of the Qur'an, its interpretation and understanding (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum. There were several anti-government uprisings in the region such as the 1979 Qatif Uprising. However, the unexpected impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the economy, along with Saudi Arabia's poor human rights records, laid unforeseen challenges before the development plans of the Kingdom, where some of the programs under ‘Vision 2030’ were also expected to be affected. (The CIA Factbook estimated that as of 2013[update] foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia made up about 21% of the population. [71] The third state occurred during the early 3rd century BC with bursting economic activity between the south and north that made Lihyan acquire large influence suitable to its strategic position on the caravan road. [3] Other sources report differing estimates. [267] At least 56,000 people have been killed in armed violence in Yemen between January 2016 and October 2018. [62], The earliest sedentary culture in Saudi Arabia dates back to the Ubaid period, upon discovering various pottery sherds at Dosariyah. According to the United Nations, the Arabian peninsula nation is home to the world's worst humanitarian crisis. The kingdom has a long-standing military relationship with Pakistan, it has long been speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's atomic bomb programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan, in near future. Initial analysis of the discovery concluded that the eastern province of Saudi Arabia was the homeland of the earliest settlers of Mesopotamia, and by extension, the likely origin of the Sumerians. Saudi Arabia is also hoping to secure foreign investment in the tourism industry. In 2018 the Al Jouf Agricultural Development Company received a certificate of merit from The Guinness World Records for the largest modern olive plantation in the world. 7198 Unit No. [311], The United States sold more than $80 billion in military hardware between 1951 and 2006 to the Saudi military. Quamquam regimen absolutisticum habeat, Arabia Saudiana praecipua Civitatum Foederatarum socia musulmana in … [406], Consuming non-renewable groundwater resulted in the loss of an estimated four fifths of the total groundwater reserves by 2012. [69] It is common view that Midian designated a confederation of tribes, the sedentary element settled in the Hijaz while its nomadic affiliates pastured, and sometimes pillaged as far away land as Palestine. Watch Queue Queue Global oil prices remain on edge after Saudi Arabia and Russia postponed a meeting about a deal to cut output as the virus pandemic hits demand. [300], The relations with the U.S. became strained following 9/11 terror attacks. "[306] The Saudi government denies these claims or that it exports religious or cultural extremism. [142][490] For many years only two religious holidays were publicly recognized – ʿĪd al-Fiṭr and ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā. Dal lunedì al venerdì dalle ore 9:00 alle ore 15:30 Diplomat Backed Continuing Support for Saudi War in Yemen Over Objections of Staff", "Saudis must lift Yemen blockade or 'untold' thousands will die, UN agencies warn", "The Photos the U.S. and Saudi Arabia Don't Want You to See", "In blocking arms to Yemen, Saudi Arabia squeezes a starving population", "US calls for ceasefire in Yemen within 30 days, sparking hopes of diplomatic breakthrough", "Showtime Documentary 'Kingdom of Silence' To Premiere On Two-Year Anniversary Of Jamal Khashoggi Murder", "Briarcliff Acquires U.S. On 'The Dissident' & Releases Trailer; Late 2020 Release To Commemorate 2nd Anniversary Of Jamal Khashoggi Murder In Saudi Consulate", "UK piles pressure on Saudi Arabia over Khashoggi killing", "Jeremy Hunt and Boris Johnson accused of 'central role' in arming Saudi Arabia as UK's relationship with Riyadh reaches crossroads", "Jeremy Hunt's bid for prime minister is being funded by a close ally of Saudi prince Mohammed Bin Salman", "Saudi Arabia signs cooperation deals with China on nuclear energy", "Saudi Arabia, With China's Help, Expands Its Nuclear Program", "Pompeo pressed on claims China is helping build Saudi uranium facility", "Revealed: Saudi Arabia may have enough uranium ore to produce nuclear fuel", "Saudi Arabia's Atomic Ambition Is Being Fueled by a UN Watchdog", "Maliki: Saudi and Qatar at war against Iraq", "Syria conflict: BBC exclusive interview with President Bashar al-Assad" with Jeremy Bowen, "WikiLeaks cables portray Saudi Arabia as a cash machine for terrorists", Why Obama doesn't want 9/11 families suing Saudi Arabia, "Saudi Arabia boosting extremism in Europe, says former ambassador", "About this Collection | Country Studies | Digital Collections | Library of Congress", "Saudis lead Middle East military spending", "Trends in International Arms Transfer, 2014", Saudi, UAE Influence Grows With Purchases, "Human rights groups ask Trudeau to end 'immoral' arms deal with Saudi Arabia", EU Parliament – unprecedented call arms embargo against Saudi Arabia, "Yemen civil war: Poll shows most Britons oppose Saudi Arabia arms sales, as MPs call emergency debate", "European Parliament passes resolution urging arms embargo on Saudi Arabia", "Germany plans to suspend arms sales to Saudis; other European countries press for more information on Khashoggi's killing", "Canada doubles weapons sales to Saudi Arabia despite moratorium", "Karl Andree case: David Cameron to write to Saudi government", "Briton Karl Andree jailed in Saudi Arabia back home", "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death", "Dispatches: Obama Refuses to Talk Human Rights in Saudi Arabia", "USCIRF Urges President: Raise Religious Freedom on Saudi Trip", "Initiatives and Actions to Combat Terrorism", "Saudi Arabia's brutal punishment of a dissident", "Saudi Arabia court gives death penalty to man who renounced his Muslim faith", UK helped Saudi Arabia get UN human rights role through 'secret deal' to exchange votes, leaked documents suggest, "Saudi execution of Shia cleric sparks outrage in Middle East", Nobel laureates urge Saudi king to halt 14 executions, "Sen. 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It is composed of a chairman and 60 members—all chosen by the King. That's not generally what Saudi Arabia's educational system delivers, steeped as it is in rote learning and religious instruction. The main factors that influence the culture of Saudi Arabia are Islamic heritage and Bedouin traditions as well as its historical role as an ancient trade center. Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U.S. State Department considers Saudi Arabian government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies. The militants involved were in part angered by what they considered to be the corruption and un-Islamic nature of the Saudi government. [396] Authors of the video claim that 22 percent of Saudis may be considered poor (2009). [495], Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events. (9 loc./km2) Religia: islamism (sunit) 97% Moneda: riyal saudit Forma de guvernământ: monarhie Ziua naţională: 23 septembrie Geografia: Teritoriul ţării ocupă aproape în întregime Peninsula Arabia, una din cele mai mari peninsule de pe glob. NOTE: The information regarding Saudi Arabia on this page is re-published from the 2020 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. This number includes the 13 regional capitals, which have a different status as municipalities (Arabic: أمانة‎; amanah) headed by mayors (Arabic: أمين‎; amin). Additionally, traditional tribal law and custom remain significant. Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. [126] In response, King Abdullah announced on 22 February 2011 a series of benefits for citizens amounting to $36 billion, of which $10.7 billion was earmarked for housing. Mohammed Al-Jadaan said that the country will take “painful” measures and keep all options open to deal with the impact. [76], The Lihyanites fell into the hands of the Nabataeans around 65 BC upon their seizure of Hegra then marching to Tayma, and to their capital Dedan in 9 BC. [111], By 1976, Saudi Arabia had become the largest oil producer in the world. [391] In November 2005, Saudi Arabia was approved as a member of the World Trade Organization. [226], Saudi Arabia and the United States are strategic allies,[227][228] and since President Barack Obama took office in 2009, the US has sold $110 billion in arms to Saudi Arabia. [125], Since 2011, Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab Spring protests. [302] Indeed, Osama bin Laden and 15 out of the 19 9/11 hijackers were from Saudi Arabia;[303] in ISIL-occupied Raqqa, in mid-2014, all 12 judges were Saudi. [80], In 2005, King Fahd died and was succeeded by Abdullah, who continued the policy of minimum reform and clamping down on protests. Al-Magar statues were made from local stone, and it seems that the statues were fixed in a central building that might have had a significant role on the social and religious life of the inhabitants. [155], The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties, personal ambitions and ideological differences. In 1966 an earthwork in Tarout exposed an ancient burial field that yielded a large, impressive statue dating to the Dilmunite period (mid 3rd millennium BC). A recent poll conducted by YouGov for Save the Children and Avaaz stated that 63 percent of British people oppose the sale of weapons to Saudi. [611], Coordinates: 24°N 45°E / 24°N 45°E / 24; 45, "KSA" redirects here. [466], Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab civilization. 20 Riyadh 13315 – 3642. [324] In 2017, Saudi Arabia signed a 110 billion dollar arms deal with the United States. It is a virus from the Coruna virus family, where most cases appeared in the Chinese city of Wuhan at the end of December 2019 in the form of acute pneumonia. However, experts such as Joan Oates had the opportunity to see the Ubaid period sherds in eastern Arabia and consequently conclude that the sherds dates to the last two phases of Ubaid period (period three and four), while handful examples could be classified roughly as either Ubaid 3 or Ubaid 2. • a sud-est dagli Emirati Arabi Uniti e dall'Oman. Various Human Rights entities have criticised Saudi Arabia's handling of the issue. Orari. [438][439][440][441][442] The official and dominant form of Sunni Islam in Saudi Arabia is commonly known as Wahhabism[443] (proponents prefer the name Salafism, considering Wahhabi derogatory[444]), which was founded in the Arabian Peninsula by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in the 18th century. Saudi Arabia is Britain's largest arms customer, with more than £4.6 billion worth of arms bought since the start of Saudi-led coalition in Yemen. [529] Other events since the GEA's creation have included comedy shows, professional wrestling events and monster truck rallies. [279], Saudi Arabia halted new trade and investment dealings with Canada and suspended diplomatic ties in a dramatic escalation of a dispute over the kingdom's arrest of women's rights activist Samar Badawi on 6 August 2018. [314], Spending on defense and security has increased significantly since the mid-1990s and was about US$78.4 billion, as of 2019. Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions[362] (Arabic: مناطق إدارية‎; manatiq idāriyya, sing. [492] 90 percent of books published in the kingdom were on religious subjects, and most of the doctorates awarded by its universities were in Islamic studies. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad united the population of Arabia and created a single Islamic religious polity. Most online censorship generally falls into two categories: one based on censoring "immoral" (mostly pornographic and LGBT-supportive websites along with websites promoting any religious ideology other than Sunni Islam) and one based on a blacklist run by Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Media, which primarily censors websites critical of the Saudi regime or associated with parties that are opposed to or opposed by Saudi Arabia. [543], Only two years after Saudi Arabia signed a contract of 10 years with WWE, an increasing number of wrestlers denied to visit Riyadh. Saudi Arabia is the only country with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. [3] Similarly, The Chronicle of Higher Education wrote in 2010 that "the country needs educated young Saudis with marketable skills and a capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship. [80], Cultural life rapidly developed, primarily in the Hejaz, which was the center for newspapers and radio. [344][345][346], In December 2019, Saudi Arabia organized a big-budget electronic dance music festival, MDL Beast to the kingdom, "the region's biggest music event".